Module 4: Implementation of Sustainable Planning
Heat supply means the provision of heat to residential, public, and industrial buildings and structures to meet customers’ residential (heating, cooling, hot-water supply) and industrial needs. A distinction is made between building and district heat supply. Building heat supply systems serve one or several buildings; district systems serve a residential or industrial area.
Heat supply means the provision of heat to residential, public, and industrial buildings and structures to meet customers’ residential (heating, cooling, hot-water supply) and industrial needs. A distinction is made between building and district heat supply. Building heat supply systems serve one or several buildings; district systems serve a residential or industrial area. The principal advantages of district heat supply over building heat supply are significant reductions in fuel expenditures and operating costs (for example, by automation and increased efficiency of boiler units), the possibility of using low-grade fuel, reduction of air pollution, and improvement of health conditions in populated areas. According to Eurostat renewable energy accounted for 15.1 % of total energy use for heating and cooling in the EU-28 in 2011. This is a significant increase from 9.6 % in 2004. Increases in industrial sectors, services and residential use (building sector) contributed to this growth. Aerothermal, geothermal and hydrothermal heat energy captured by heat pumps should be also taken into account.
Heat consumption is big cost factor for households. In Germany for example the costs of (mainly fossil based) heat in household increased up to 170 percent in the last 15 years (2013). Source: Stephan Kohler, Head of Dena in ZfK, 2013.
A district heat supply system includes a source of heat, the heat supply system (grid), and the heat-consuming installations, which are connected to the system through heat distribution points. With district heat supply, the sources of heat may be district heat and power plants (CHP), which combine the production of electricity and heat. CHP is a significant contributor to the heat supply in Europe, supplying 15.2% in 2009. Heat sources could be natural gas and biogas or oil engines and coal and biomass solid fuel boilers (in combination with hot water storage tanks/ heat loads), heat pumps, waste (water) energy, central solar thermal heating as well as nuclear power.
In building heat supply, the sources of heat may be furnaces, hot-water boilers, or water heaters, including solar heaters.
Heat supply also includes the development of heat maps showing locations where heat demand is sufficient to support district heating. Often these maps are included as part of an energy map.
District heating networks provide the following direct benefits (Combined Heat & Power Association (CHPA), 2013):
Figure 1: District heating (Source: Compare Renewables).
These in turn deliver a range of beneficial outcomes:
In addition to technical planning aspects of heating devices and district heating networks the following planning aspects are associated with heat supply:
Figure 2: Map of network opportunity areas assessed in the options appraisal, Bury St. Edmunds (Source: LDA Design).
1. Local level
Relevant are the land development plan and the binding land use plan.
Heat punps: They are mostly located on housing sites. Noise conflicts have to be considered.
CHP: Noise conflicts have to be considered.
2. Regional Level
Biomass: It is useable for different techniques such as biomass plants or CHP facilities. Spatial relevant is the production of biomass at specific areas under crops (groundwater quality, biodiversity) as well as the facilities of use. The determination of exemptions areas for specific uses are only possible when planning is regionally significant.
Geothermal: These technique is mostly not regionally significant. But to foster such technology through regional planning it is possible to describe a balanced energy mix for increasing the use of renewables. Furthermore it is possible to identify/regulate a reservation- or priority area for the implementation of large scale geothermal supply. The competition between geothermal uses and other purposes of the underground are not finally solvable on the regional planning level.
3. Country Level
4. National Level
Town and country planning code